What is an emergency/specialty hospital and how is it different than my primary veterinarian?
What services are offered?
The following list is just some of the services available through CVRC's Internal Medicine Department:
- Flexible and rigid endoscopy
- Full complement of external laboratories for advanced testing
- Dedicated Intensive Care Unit staffed 24 hours a day
- Oxygen support
- Advanced Fluid Therapy
What types of advanced diagnostics and procedures are offered?
Gastroenterology – the study of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Typical conditions include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), food allergies, hiatal hernias, polyps, foreign bodies, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or cancers.
- Nutritional consultation
- Endoscopy: utilizing small and flexible endoscopes to examine and obtain (in a minimally invasive way) biopsies of the larynx, oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum and colon. Also to retrieve foreign objects that your pet may have ingested.
- Minimally invasive colonic polyp removal
- Minimally invasive placement of feeding tubes
Respiratory Medicine – the study of the upper and the lower respiratory tract. Diseases include nasopharyngeal polyps and cancers, chronic rhinitis (inflammation), nasopharyngeal stenosis, laryngeal paralysis, collapsing trachea, tracheal hypoplasia (congenital disorder), fungal infections of the nasal passages and lungs, feline asthma, chronic bronchitis, and infectious pneumonias.
- Endoscopy: utilizing small flexible and rigid endoscopes to examine and obtain in a minimally invasive way biopsies of the upper respiratory tract (rhinoscopy), and to examine the lower airways (bronchoscopy)
- Airway secretion collection for diagnosis of lower airway diseases and infections
- CT Scan or MRI of the upper and lower airway tracts
- Tracheal stenting for collapsing trachea and tracheal cancers (stents placed into the trachea without surgery)
- Oxygen therapy
Endocrinology – the study of multiple glands of the body (parathyroid, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary and hypothalamus glands). Common endocrine diseases include diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, adrenal tumors, hyper and hypoparathyroidism, hyper and hypothyroidism, Cushing’s disease, Addison’s disease, as well as excessive drinking and urinating.
- Comprehensive testing, diagnosis, and treatment of a variety of advanced endocrine disorders
- Glucose curves to assess proper diabetic control
- Fine needle aspirates (obtaining cells using a small needle by ultrasound guidance) and ultrasound-guided biopsies of organs to obtain samples to diagnose conditions in a minimally invasive way
- Ethanol ablation of parathyroid tumors
Nephrology/Urology – the study of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate, and urethra. Conditions that are diagnosed and treated include acute and chronic kidney failure, kidney and bladder stones, prostatitis and prostate cysts, bladder polyps, kidney infections, congenital kidney diseases, urinary incontinence and urethral/bladder/prostate cancer.
- Cystoscopy: using small rigid or flexible scopes to visualize and obtain biopsies of the lower urinary tract
- Percutaneous cystolithotomy (PCCL): bladder and urethral stone removal with a much smaller incision into the bladder and using cystoscopy
- Urethral stenting: stents placed in urethras to relieve obstructions causes by cancers
- Antegrade pyelograms and intravenous pyelograms: diagnostic techniques using a dye (contrast) and fluoroscopy to better visualize the urinary system
- Urethral collagen injections: for incontinence using cystoscopy
Hematology – dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood (containing red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, proteins, clotting agents) and its precursors. Diseases include hemophilia and congenital/hereditary diseases, bleeding disorders, hemolytic anemias (destruction of red blood cells by the animal’s immune system caused by infectious agents), infectious and destructive platelet disorders, and bone marrow disorders.
- Bone marrow aspirates and biopsies: to evaluate blood product precursors and diagnose blood disorders
- Treatment of coagulation disorders
- Blood product transfusions and typing of your pets’ blood type
- Treatment of various types of anemia using erythrocyte stimulating agents: medications such as darbepoetin used to stimulate red blood cell production (for example: anemia caused by kidney disease)
Infectious Diseases – is the branch that aims to diagnose and treat infectious agents that may afflict cats and dogs. In certain instances, these diseases can be transmitted from one pet to another, from a vector (such as ticks) to animals, and even from pets to humans (zoonosis). Infectious diseases include: Leptospirosis, Influenza, Herpes, Lyme, Babesiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichiosis, and rickettsial agents, among others.
Interventional Medicine – a relatively new branch of veterinary medicine. It aims to provide minimally invasive procedures to treat common problems in animals. Interventional Medicine involves using stents placed in areas to keep them open (trachea for tracheal collapse, urethra for cancers), endoscopy and fluoroscopy (to diagnose diseases and guide the placement of stents).
- Tracheal, nasopharyngeal and urethral stents
- Urethral collagen injections to treat urinary incontinence
What should I expect during my visit?
Internal medicine consultation usually begins with your family veterinarian diagnosing a disease or condition that requires advanced expertise, diagnostics, therapeutics, and patient monitoring. A full history, medical record review, and complete physical examination are performed. After examination and discussion, an initial treatment plan will be presented for the diagnostic workup and/or treatment.
Our internal medicine specialist will communicate with you during the work-up or treatment process to keep you informed on your pet's progress. We will also communicate with your primary veterinarian during this process to ensure a collaborative treatment plan for the care of your pet. Upon discharge, you will be given a printed visit summary with the diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and follow up care. A full report will be sent to your family veterinarian the same day. We welcome your progress reports, questions and concerns any time and will maintain an ongoing relationship with your primary care doctor to ensure the best experience for you and the best care for your pet.
What should I bring to my visit?
Do I need a referral?
Will you keep my family veterinarian informed of the care my pet receives at CVRC?
What is ultrasound?
Ultrasound is a diagnostic tool used to obtain more detailed information about internal body structures.Ultrasound machines use sound waves administered by a small handheld device called a probe, waves are reflected back to the probe, and a computer formats these into visual pictures on a monitor for the clinician to review. Ultrasound is painless and noninvasive.
How is ultrasound performed?
What is ultrasound used for?
Applications for ultrasound include:
Imaging of thoracic and abdominal masses
Imaging of fluid accumulation in the abdomen or thorax
Imaging of the neck, including thyroid and parathyroid glands
Imaging of blood vessels and flow, in and around the heart, and throughout the body
Imaging of the eye (for masses and retinal detachment)
Assessment of internal injuries after trauma (called an AFAST/TFAST scan)
Minimally invasive techniques to obtain samples of organs for diagnosis of illnesses and cancers (fine needle aspirates and ultrasound-guided biopsies).
Will my pet need to be sedated or anesthetized for an ultrasound?
What is endoscopy?
Endoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that uses flexible and rigid scopes to visualize internal structures of a patient, including the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, nasal passages, respiratory tract, and urinary tract.
How is endoscopy performed?
After a full physical examination, the patient is sedated or anesthetized. A specialized scope is passed into the area of interest (gastrointestinal, urinary, or respiratory tract), and a camera hooked up to the scope displays live images of these structures. Using special instruments, biopsy samples can be obtained, as well as foreign material removed.
What is endoscopy used for?
Endoscopy is used to visualize the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urinary tract, and to obtain diagnostic tissue samples to diagnose conditions affecting these body systems. Polyps can be removed. Endoscopy can also be used to extract upper gastrointestinal foreign material, and to assist in placement of feeding tubes.
Will my pet need to be sedated or anesthetized for an endoscopy?
Anesthesia or sedation is required to allow for the passage of an endoscopy into the area of interest. We use the most up to date and safest anesthetic agents, preanesthetic laboratory screening, tailored anesthetic protocols, and state of the art monitoring equipment to ensure safety for your pet before, during, and after anesthesia.
What is echocardiography?
How is echocardiography performed?
What is echocardiography used for?
Echocardiography is used to diagnose the following conditions:
Ventricular septal defects
AV valve dysplasia
Patent ductus arteriousus
Heart based masses
Advanced feline restrictive cardiomyopathy
Right to left shunts
Atrial septal defects
AV valve stenoses
Coronary artery defects
Occult dilated cardiomyopathy
Persistent left cranial vena cava
Canine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Feline diastolic dysfunction
Will my pet need to be sedated or anesthetized for echocardiography?
Echocardiography is painless and noninvasive. For most patients, sedation or anesthesia is not required. Certain advanced procedures may require sedation or anesthesia for patient comfort and compliance.
What is a CT Scan?
How is CT performed?
What is CT used for?
Brain – Trauma with suspected fracture, acute intracranial injury in an unstable patient
Spine – Fractures, mineralized disc rupture, neoplasia
Orbit/Ocular – Orbital trauma with suspected fracture, neoplasia
Head/Neck – Dental-related neoplasia, head/neck trauma with suspected fracture
Neoplasia – Surgical planning for tumor removal or debulking, Lung metastasis screening
Cardiovascular – Pulmonary embolism
Other – General trauma
Does my pet need to be sedated or anesthetized for a CT Scan?
Will my pet need to stay overnight?
Depending on the nature of your pet's disease or condition, the diagnostics or treatments performed, and their timing, you pet may or may not need to stay overnight. For general medical workups, overnight hospitalization is generally not necessary. Our doctor or veterinary nurse will discuss the expected hospital stay during admission to the hospital.
Is someone going to be caring for my pet 24 hours a day?
Can I visit my pet while they are hospitalized?
If you feel there is an extenuating circumstance, please discuss this with your doctor.